12/27/06

Hajj – Some Lessons from the Prophet’s (PBUH) Farewell Pilgrimage

. 12/27/06

Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam and was made obligatory in the tenth, ninth or sixth year of Hijrah (famous migration of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) from Mecca to Madinah), according to different reports (Hafiz Ibn Kathir, al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 5/109). In the tenth year the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) announced that he intended to perform hajj; this was the only time that he performed hajj after the Hijrah (Migration) to Madinah. The Muslims came from all over the Arabian Peninsula to perform hajj with him. He left Madinah five days before the end of Dhu al Qa`dah [11th Month of Islamic calendar] (Ibn Hajar, Fath al Bari, 8/104; Ibn Ishaq, with reference to Sirat ibn Hisham, 4/272. Ibn Kathir, al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 5/111). When he halted in Arafat, the following ayah (verse of Quran) was revealed to him: (Sahih al Bukhari, Fath al Bari, 8/108)

"…This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion…" (Al Ma’idah 5:4)

The Muslims learned the rituals of the hajj from the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) when he said: "Take your rituals from me." His hajj was full of laws pertaining to the shari`ah, especially matters pertaining to the hajj, and general advice and laws which were mentioned in the Sermon of Arafat.

KHUTBAH-I-HAJJAT AL-WIDA BY THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD (BPUH)
(FAREWELL SERMON BY THE HOLY PROPHET (BPUH) AT THE LAST PILGRIMAGE)

The following is an English translation of the last sermon which the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) delivered at Mount Arafaat on his last pilgrimage. This sermon is very famous and very important, as it has laid down the foundations of human rights, dignity and freedom. It was delivered on the ninth day of Zul Hijjah (12th month of Islamic calendar) 10 A.H. (Aftaer Hijra):

“O People! Listen to me. I do not think that after this year, you and I shall even meet in this place. Remember, there is none worthy of being worshipped except Allah; He is one, He has no partner, the sovereignty belongs to Him. All praise is due to Him, He is the giver of life and death, and has power over all things.

“O People! From now onwards your blood and your properties are as safe as this city (Mecca) and this month (Zul Hijjah = 12th Month of Islamic Calender).

“Remember! You shall have to meet your Lord very soon; then He will question you about your deeds. I have conveyed His Message to you. He who is entrusted with property belonging to another shall deliver his trust to the person to whom it belongs. All transactions involving usury are forbidden; your capital is yours. Do not do injustice to others nor let injustice be done to you.

“It has been ordained by Allah that all usury is forbidden. To start with I give up the usury that is due to my relations. And all interest by debtors to Abbas, my uncle, son of Abd al‑Muttalib is given up.

“Compensation for bloodshed committed during the days of ignorance is canceled. On my part, I give up my claim for compensation, i.e. the claim for compensation for the life of the son Rabia Bin Harith is canceled.

“O People ! Satan, (the evil one) has despaired of being followed in your land; but he will be followed in other lands. Therefore, you be careful of your faith, lest the people of other lands obliterate your good deeds.

“O People ! The postponement of the sacred month (Zul Hijjah) is an addition of the days of disbelief; those who choose disbelief stay on the wrong path; they make it sacred in one year and non-sacred in another in order to make up the number of sacred months fixed by Allah, so that they make non-sacred what Allah has made sacred. And time revolves as it has been shaped since the day heavens and earth were created by Him. The number of months with Allah are twelve and four are sacred ‑ three consecutive months, i.e. Shawwal, Zul Qa‘dah, and Zul Hijjah, and Rajab between Jamada al-Awwal and Sha‘baan.

“O People! Fear Allah and carry out his injunctions about women; you have got them unto you as a sacred trust from Allah, and He has made them lawful for you by His word. You have got your rights over your wives and they have theirs over you. Your rights over them are that they should observe chastity and avoid immorality. If, however, they go astray, you may keep them off and you are allowed to punish them without causing injury. But if they repent you may forgive them. Then their rights over you are that you should feed them and clothe them with fairness.

“And advise men to treat their womenfolk fairly for they have been given in your charge.

“O People! Note well what I have said, I have conveyed my message to you, I have left with you the Book of Allah (the Holy Quran) and my Sunnah. If you adopt these and act up to them you shall never go astray.

“O People! Listen to my message and understand it well. There is no superiority for Arabs over non‑Arabs and for non‑Arabs over Arabs, for you are all children of Adam and Adam was created out of clay. You have been taught that each Muslim is a brother of every other Muslim and that Muslims are one brotherhood. It is not lawful for any man to appropriate for himself anything which belongs to his brother except with the latter's own free will and consent. Therefore, do not be unjust to one another.

“O People ! There is no prophet after me. There is no new religious community after you. You shall have to serve your Lord (Allah), perform prayers five times a day, fast in the month of Ramazan; pay zakaat (compulsory tax for charitable purposes on your properties), perform Hajj to the sacred house of Allah in Makkah and obey your religious and temporal leader. Even if a black man from amongst the salves is chosen your leader and if he rules over you according to the Book of Allah, follow him and obey him. As a reward for these from Allah you will enter Paradise.

“Let all those who are now present carry this message to those who are absent.

“O Allah Be Thou the witness. I have delivered my message to mankind”.





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